The circumstances that led to the merger
The acquisition of the AmeriCredit Corp by the GM vehicles was informed by the demand for leasing as well as for nonprime financing for GM vehicles. The acquisition was aimed at supporting the efforts by the GM to design, build as well as sell the world’s best vehicles through the expansion of financing options for customers who buy their vehicles (Aharon, 2010). Thus acquisition of the AmeriCredit group would improve the competitiveness of the company in auto financing offerings.
With this acquisition, the GM would be in a position to provide avail captivating financing thus provide the customers with a greater ranger of financing options while at the same time creating a great growth opportunities for both organizations.
Why (two) reasons the resulting decision to merge or acquire /be acquired was made
The GM decided to acquire the AmeriCredit corp. meet the demands of both leasing and non-prime financing for its vehicles. The acquisition would allow the GM to support its efforts for design, building as well as selling the world’s best vehicles through the expansion of its financing opportunities and options to customers in buying GM vehicles (Aharon, 2010). Thus was projected at helping the GM to improve its competitiveness over auto financing offerings.
Secondly, the decision for the acquisition was made in order to establish the core of the new GM captive financing arm in order to help the GM to provide its customers with a deeper range of vehicle by availing financing options and opportunities. While at the same time creating a significant growth opportunities for both organizations (Reddy, 2013). For instance through this merger, he GM hoped to significantly increase of non-prime penetration while the AmeriCredit hoped to provide an expanded leasing availability for all GM vehicle customers.
Assessment of the significance effects of the merger or acquisition
Following the acquisition, the GM’s non-prime penetration has increased significantly and it is expected that upon completion, AmeriCredit group will again re-enter the leasing business in order to provide an expanded leasing availability for all GM customers. In addition, the resultant direct ownership of AmeriCredit group’s expertise will avail a consistent non-prime financing for GM customers over all the economic cycles (Reddy, 2013). The transaction will further enhance the already existing relationship between the AmeriCredit Corp and the over 4000 GM customers hence help in improving sales penetration through coordinated GM branding as well as other customer marketing initiatives.
Two examples of those effects now that the merger or acquisition has been completed
With the merger, the AmeriCredit group would now be in apposition to fully expand their products and set more support for the GM customers. For instance, the group would continue to offer their loans products to the more than 11, 000 dealers across the country which they serve today while in the long term, the transaction will lead to benefits to the dealers of both the customers and the employees in the two organizations.
On the other hand, the GM will benefit from the niche capabilities which in leasing products as well as other non prime financing in addition to the continued strong support of ally financing as well as others for prime retail and dealer financing. This will set up a very competitive solution for their financing needs which are very resilient through both credit and business cycles.
The organizational culture that has resulted from the merger or acquisition
The highly regarded management team in the AmeriCredit largely remained intact. This was aimed at helping to assist in minimizing the integration of risk as well as the minimization of opportunities between the two companies.
However, the under the agreement terms which have been approved by the board of the company directors for the two companies, AmeriCredit shareholder will each get $24.50 in cash for each share held as a means of transaction closing date. In addition, with a total asset of over $10 billion, the acquisition of the AmeriCredit by the GM possess a very minimal impact on the balance sheet of the GM Corporation, as such, it cannot alter the GTM’s general objective for a strong investment to grade status. Thus structurally, under the GM ownership, the AmeriCredit corp. will maintain its own direct access to the capital markets for its financing requirements.
The major differences between the resulting company and the original two organizations
First, the merger gave the GM some financial roots which could enable it to expand its business by taping in to the consumers who otherwise would be affected by financial hardships hence making them unable to pay for their cars upfront (Cartwright, 2006). This allowed both the organizations to take advantage of and exploit the little opportunity in the poor economy under which the potential consumers were facing financial difficulties.
The human management practices of the company which were modified to reflect the outcome of the merger or the acquisition
The acquisition of the AmeriCredit corp. by the GM led to some human resource management modifications in order to reflect the outcome of the acquisition (Cartwright, 2006). This was first aimed at the analysis of the merger turn over as well as the potential needs and trends occasioned by the acquisition with the different HR specialists in the different areas from each of the original organizations in relation to the new and additional needs with the resultant acquisition.
In addition, the acquisition of AmeriCredit corp. by the GM led to new approach in human resource management in the new corporation under which through consultations, new guidance and solutions were needed for the business leaders as well as the employees in regard to the resultant human resource management policies and programs. Such included benefits, compensation, performance management, corrective action, training on new skills, leadership as well as in recruitment (Harwood, I.2006). This was aimed at development of a new partnership between the original organizations and the resultant merger with the appropriate human resource and legal specialty in order to keep and look for areas of improvement which could allow the new organization to realize their optimum impact on corporate policy.
There was also a need for the modification of the human resource management polices in the new organization in order to implement strategies which could attract and retain high quality talent to work in partnership with the new departmental leaders all across the organization.
Aharon, D, Y. (2010). Stock market bubble effects on mergers and acquisitions. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 50(4): p. 456–470
Cartwright, S. (2006). “Thirty Years of Mergers and Acquisitions Research: Recent Advances and Future Opportunities”. British Journal of Management 17 (S1): S1–S5. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00475.x.
Harwood, I. A. (2006). “Confidentiality constraints within mergers and acquisitions: gaining insights through a ‘bubble’ metaphor”.British Journal of Management 17 (4): 347–359. doi:1111/j.1467-8551.2005.00440.x.
The concert was graced by the musicians Allfro moderato, Antantino, Con Variation as well as Allegretto Sherzando. In addition the Archduke piano trio of Ene Yu, Violin Guo-sheng Huang, cello Robert Holm were also in attendance while the show was further enriched by the presence of pianist Brian, brown and viola. These constitute the major pierces of the performance which were purposely aimed at the assessment of the student; Catie Stephens as part of the fulfillment of the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in music education instrumental. The trumpet was her instrument of her choice which was accompanied by the piano that was played by Brian, brown and viola while she was assisted by her music professor Mr., Peter wood.
The piano Quartet D major was done to a great taste and it was started by allegro moderato thereby introducing the audience to the Stolzel mode of playing the trumpet. Over the cool and serene mood, the performance was followed by Andante which was more suited to the pace and rhythm. This duo was very well synchronized and later slowed down and reverted to the allegro. These pieces could be described as highly dense as well as created a mood of intensity. Except for some mid measure parts during which the interlocking on notes was distorted by the musicians’ emotions, the whole performance told a sad story that culminated in delight through an emphasis of the musician’s mood as well as use of music for expression.
Next piece of performance was the “night songs” by Richard Peaslea that was performed in 1973. The piece did not include the [piano unlike the first performance. In addition, it was also not in the mood that it portrayed. However, it was more exciting as well as a mystic track that could well be tuned for a ballet. I personally loved this piece especially for its ability to change the mod of the audience even in the absence of an intermission at the end of the first performance. In addition, the performer was well compassed as well as well-versed with the notes and was actively clear on the noes which needed a higher pitch compared to others. Actually even though it took about 15 minutes, the piece left the audience yarning for more. It was completely relaxing, easy to follow which made me sing along to the tune over my head.
The last piece of the night was the Concerto by Pakhmutova which was a culmination of the performance by the student and indeed she displayed her ability to fuse concert performance with a good bodily expressions and gesture. She had the mood written all over her lips as she did the trumpet. She came alive and felt the music she played which moved the crowd. I particularly loved the revision of the piece that was slightly modified to fit her own version of the tune
In conclusion I fully enjoyed the performance of the night in addition to her accompanying pianist. I could read the mood of the presentation and in particular loved the way the last piece was done and culminated it was all a really enjoyable night.
The following are my reasons for transferring and the objectives I hope to achieve. First, absence of the major I hope to pursue. My current school, Loyola University, granted me a scholarship that I couldn’t turn down. To give credit where it is due, I learnt much from the institution. Unfortunately, it doesn’t offer the course that I hope to major in. I hope to achieve and pursue the major in your institution. Second, I want to get out of my comfort zone. I aspire to be an independent person. Therefore, I don’t want to study at home which I feel, is a comfort zone. I want to challenge myself, to network, study in an environment full of students, and interact with and learn from them. I hope to achieve an academic ambition in my field of study. Thirdly, the vicinity of the college and fellow students; your institution is surrounded by industries and there are other learners. By learning from both the industries and fellow students, I hope it will instill a sense of facing any challenge I am faced with. Lastly, it whets my appetite for more education. At Loyola University, I joined the cross-exchange program which enabled me to take glass blowing classes in Tulane University. I overcame the heat challenges of the oven and created art which I love having people enjoy it. I hope to triumph in the academic challenges facing me.
My extracurricular activity is acting. I joined the star-studded cast of “Cleaners.” My role contrasted with my daily life but I took the challenge. It made me passionate about acting, filming and art. A circumstance that is not mentioned in my application is that my little brother is autistic. He studies in a special school. However, he has instilled love, patience and hope into me. I understand him through his body language or what he gives me. We’ve taught him daily chores and how to use technological gadgets, such as the iPad, hoping that he will become tech-savvy in the future.
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
The aim of this essay is to discuss the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The paper supports and provides evidence supporting the argument that the slave trade was based on a pre-existing slavery institution in Africa.
The transfer of Africans to the New World between the 17th and 19th centuries might be referred to as the second largest transoceanic migration of humankind (Ball, 5). Critics of this slave trade, mostly black historians, often lament on its inhumane nature. The reality that the slave trade was based on a pre-existing slavery institution IS oft given scant credence, yet, there’s substantial literature showing that Africans subjected their fellow Africans to a form of slavery. It was thus a surprise to historians studying slavery that slaves in Africa and African slave plantations surpassed those in the Americas
The native-born, captured or bought servile cultivators. According to Inikori (49), geographical studies in Western Sudan, the Sokoto Caliphate in the Central Sudan, and East Africa show evidence. In the Zaria emirate of the Sokoto Caliphate, in modern-day Nigeria, the populations either lived in walled urban centers or agricultural villages (rumada). In the walled towns, comprising of Zaria, the administrative center, lived the fief-holding administrators. In the agricultural villages, lived the servile cultivators—either native-born (dimajai) or those captured or bought; their lords allotted lands to them which they had to till from 9.30 am, had midday lunch breaks to eat food sent to them by their lords, and went home at 2.30pm.
The Bida emirate of the Sokoto Caliphate, started by a rich Fulani family and increased between 1857 and 1901, resulted to the subjugation of an indigenous populous called the Nupe. The emirate’s military raided the nearby territories and took with them Yoruba, Afenmai, Igbirra, Hausa and Fulani captives. These captives lived in slave villages called tungazi and produced their own farm products, however, they had to pay two forms of tributes to their lords: money (cowries) and in kind (a portion of their farm produce). These servile populous, native-born, captives or bought, “lived and worked under conditions that approximated those of slavery.” There were also unmarried serviles who completely depended on their lords for upkeep. These slaves were household servants and though lived in their parental homes, were fed by their lords (Inikori, 51 & 52).
During the 19th century, there was rational exploitation the labor of servile populations in Western Sudan and Niger Bend. In the region, slaves were concentrated in villages or quarters and their labor, feeding and dues were increasingly controlled (Inikori 54). In the Niger Bend, a Muslim teacher started the state of Masina in early 19th century. Its creation led to the subjugation of populations locally referred to as rimaibe; they were given land to till from which they paid a sixth of their harvest as rent and gave a particular amount of their grains, named diamgal, as dues.
In the region of Fouta-Djallon, present day Republic of Guinea, there was a jihad led by the Fulani in 1727. The local tribes of Diallonke, Susu and Poullis were not only triumphed over but made slaves. They were allotted land from which a tenth of its harvest was rent and offered dues to their masters by working for them “from early morning until early afternoon” (Inikori, 55).
Servile labor was used to produce farm products in East African coast by Arabs, Swahili and migrant Africans. The Omani Arabs, in Pemba and Zanzibar, used servile labor to plant, tend and harvest cloves. When harvesting, they “worked eight or nine hours a day, seven days a week” or five or six days, weekly. Slaves in Malindi worked in grain plantations in groups ranging from five to twenty, weekly working hours ranging between forty and fifty. Slave villages in Mombasa held up to three hundred slaves, some paying ijara, monthly or yearly payments to their masters.
In conclusion, just like the slavery in Medieval Europe and Russia, slavery existed in Africa and provided the basis for the Atlantic slave trade. Others have claimed it started much later (Lovejoy, 7). African slavery was different: sometimes benign and not directly referred to as slavery. However, a rose by any other name would smell as sweet and a gutter by another name as foul.
Ball, Jeremy. The Atlantic Slave Trade. California: University of California, 2000
Inikori, Joseph, “Slavery in Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade,” in Alusibe Jalloh and Stephen E. Maizlish (eds.), The African Diaspora (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1996, 40-65.
Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, 7.
Police Corruption: How does it affect the community?
Police corruption has been rampant in the society since the formation of the first American police department over the mid-1800s when the police department was formed to run the municipal governments and agencies. First during those times, the employment in the force could be assured through directives of political parties in order for them to have illicit activities undertaken by the force (TI, 2013). In addition, the environmental acceptance of the practice in the police force further led to practices which offered individual police officers monetary benefits. However, with time the elites and the progressive middle class who were educated opposed this practice of political control over the police service and instigated the establishment of police commissions, adoption of civil service exams as well as other legislative reforms which reduced the wide spread of the problem.
First police corruption leads to illegal regulation under which common situations occur for police officers to abuse or choose not to use their power in a way that benefits the community. For instance, the police may act in such a way as if they are doing something about a crime incident in the community yet they use their powers in such a way that they benefit from an illegal activity such as drug trafficking.
In addition, police corruption leads to green lighting over the agency under which the police turn a blind eye to different criminals or criminal activities which may adhere to some rules for instance, they police agency may be inclined to accommodate drug dealers which adhere to no violence, or don’t sell drugs to children (TI, 2013). This in turn leads to a king or intentional creation of a level of control over drugs trade or any other form of the tolerated crime.
In addition, corruption among the police may leads the agency to work in corroboration with the bad individuals which leads to officers working in “bad barrel” or “bad orchard” which is in itself a corrupting influence. This entangles many officers in criminal activities which puts their integrity in to question.
In dealing with drug dealers, the impact of or the connection between the dealers and the police is well known since the boom of illegal drugs took root in the 1980s. the police corruption played a critical role in this problem for instance it has been established that there is a corresponding in police corruption and violent conduct in addition to may similar connections between drug dealings and police corruption in the US.
Again, due to police corruption, police officers tasked with the responsibility of policing the prohibition of illegal drugs leads many to belief that they police cannot illuminate such or that in fact they will still form them dealers! In fact form firsthand experience, in both the US and Australia (TI, 2013). The police have justified sealing from drug dealers as a form of tax or charge that tries to make it harder for the dealers to continue with business.
Diets of Great-Billed Hermit
Like other humming birds they mainly feed on nectar and smaller insects.
Feeding Characteristic of Great Billed Hermit
They feed mainly from flowers where they obtain nectar. The bird uses its slender bill to enable it collect nectar from flowers. The bill further enables it to feed from certain type of flowers which may be in an inaccessible area. The feeding mechanism is called trap lining method. This method enables this humming bird to move over few flowers in a long distance. After getting to a food source, they use their long tongues to suck nectar as their tails move up to maintain balance. They lick the nectar at high speeds of up to thirteen times per second. Its long wings enable it to move between the flowers thus allowing it to eat more food. Humming bird feeders also provide the hermits with sugar water or form fountains from which the birds will feed from. Male usually establish territories from which they can feed from and defend them using intimidate displays and aerial flights.
Apart from eating nectar they also eat insects through a process called hawking. Hawking is a mechanism whereby the bird catches the insect by flying then diving to grab them out of the air. The body of the great billed hermit is small therefore they need a lot of calories. It is adapted to this in the sense that it digests its food very fast (Conservapedia).
Their feeding habits are different from other humming birds in that they visit plants that are along a route covering areas of up to 1 km while other species usually have a feeding territory which is constantly maintained.
This species is non-migratory in nature thus stays within a certain range. They live in humid and transitional forests, shrubs, bamboo thickets and pre montane habitats. Exist in areas of sea level up to an altitude of about 2400m.
It is part of the Phaethornithinae subfamily and is majorly found in the South American parts. They can be found in Peru, Ecuador, eastern Colombia, east to west of Brazil and south of Bolivia. Other populations can be found in French Guiana and Surinam. The subspecies of the great billed hermit usually occupy different ranges.
The Phaethornis malaris bolivianus is found in Bolivia, western Brazil and southeastern Peru. The Phaethornis malaris insolitus is found in south Venezuela, northern Brazil and Eastern Colombia. The Phaethornis malaris malaris is found in north central Brazil, Surinam and French Guiana. The Phaethornis malaris ochraceiventris is found in western Brazil and Northeastern Peru. The Phaethornis margarettae is found in coastal eastern Brazil with concentrations in the forest. In addition to that, Phaethornis malaris moorei is found in northern Peru, eastern Ecuador and Eastern Colombia (Sibylle).
The species occur in three groups. One is found from southern Colombia, Venezuela to central Bolivia and north-western Brazil. The second population is found along the coast of south east Brazil specifically from Bahia to Espirito Santo. The third group in French Guyana to Suriname and northern Brazil.
Taxonomy and subspecies
The great billed hermit humming bird is classified under certain taxonomical units. The Phylum is Chordate, subphylum is Vertebrata, Class is Aves and Order is Apodiformes. The Family is Phaethornithinae and Genus is Phaethornis. The Genus is divided into subspecies which are spread across their habitats in South America. The subspecies are: bolivianus, malaris malaris, malaris margarettae, malaris ochraceiventris and malaris insolitus (Gill, Frank and Minturn).
The Hermit male species usually come together at display grounds during the breeding season. In order to attract a female species, the males usually sing and wig their tails and then the female chooses the best dancer and singer. After copulation the male usually separates with the female where then it can mate with other females. The females also mate with other males.
The female usually builds the next alone. The nest is cone shaped and is covered with moss for camouflaging purposes and is woven from plant fibers, feathers and animal hair then stuck together with webs or other sticky material. It then uses spider webs to hold the nest in position 1-2 m above the ground. The nest is adaptable in that it is elastic so that it expands as the chicks grow (Sibylle).
It then lays eggs with a clutch consisting of about 1-3 eggs with an incubation period of between 14-16 days. The mother does the work of raising the chicks which fledge 21-24 days after hatching. One brood is raised per season. The hatched chicks are usually blind and immobile. The young feed on partially digested food which the mother pushes down their throats. The food mostly consist of insects as nectar lacks the proper protein content for their growth. The long bill ensures that the mother pushes the food directly into their stomachs. Great billed hermits tend to feed more on insects during the breeding period with a nesting female capturing up to two thousand insects in a day.
Triorchidism in Great-billed hermits
Triorchidism refers to a condition in which a male has three testicles. Research established that this condition does exist in this bird species though it is rare. The testis of the great billed hermit consists of two parts. The left testis is the unique one as it is divided into two spherical testes and connected by one ductus deferens. The right testis is smaller compared to the left one and is dominated by the left which tends to occupy a larger space. The research was conducted in Rio Chipaota Valley in Peru and the objective was to study bird physiology (Witt and Bautista).
Threats facing Great billed hermits
Predators are a major challenge to great billed hermits as they reduce their population. Squirrels, chipmunks and road runners tend to eat hermits eggs as well as eating baby humming birds. Other predators include dragonflies, snakes and lizards.
Poor weather poses a threat to humming birds. Great billed hermit humming birds that inhabit mild snow areas are at high risks of facing over-wintering. This can result in their deaths due to heavy freezing. The tropical areas where they live are occasioned by high rainfall amounts. At times this heavy rains especially over the Mexican gulf causes them to drown. Sudden storms also can cause destruction of great billed hermits’ nests and food sources.
Existence of invasive plants. These plants are usually used to improve the ornamental value of landscapes. However they pose a challenge to food sources. A huge number of invasive plants can result in outgrowth thus leading to the depletion of native nectar producing plants. These plants tend to be insufficient in nectar thus a negative impact on feeding sources of great billed hermits (Mayntz).
The other threat is bad feeders. Uncleansed hummingbird feeders pose a risk to great billed hermits. They may contain harmful toxic materials which can affect the hermit’s biological system. Poorly maintained feeders can contain bee and wasp nests which attack the birds leading to their deaths. Lack of proper nutritious nectar is also another killer substance that can be found in poorly maintained feeders.
The overall major challenge is loss of their natural habitat due to alteration of the ecosystem by human activities such as deforestation.
Conservation of great billed hermits
These bird species occupy an extremely large area thus cannot be classified as threatened by biologists. Though their numbers are decreasing, they can only be classified as least concern. A number of conservation measures though can help improve their numbers.
Green billed hermits hummingbirds are protected under CITES with individual countries protecting them under specific laws. Other conservation programs to counter these threats are: reforestation, promotion of sustainable agriculture, wildlife monitoring, environmental education for communities living around green billed hermit’s habitats and constant patrols to ensure the safety of the hermits.
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